Calvin R. Howell

Calvin R. Howell

Professor of Physics

Office Location: 
221 Dfell, Durham, NC 27708
Front Office Address: 
Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308
Phone: 
(919) 660-2632

Overview

Professor Howell’s research is in the area of experimental nuclear physics with emphasis on the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) description of low-energy nuclear phenomena, including structure properties of nucleons and nuclei and reaction dynamics in few-nucleon systems.   The macroscopic properties of nucleon structure and the residual strong nuclear force between neutrons and protons in nuclei emerge from QCD at distances where the color interactions between quarks and gluons are strong.  However, the details of the mechanisms that generate the strong nuclear force are not well understood.   Effective field theories (EFT) and Lattice QCD calculations provide theoretical frames that connect low-energy nuclear phenomena to QCD.  Professor Howell and collaborators are conducting experiments on few-nucleon systems that test predictions of ab-initio theory calculations for the purpose of providing insight about the QCD descriptions of low-energy nucleon interactions and structure.  His current projects include measurements of the electromagnetic and spin-dependent structure properties of nucleons via Compton scattering on the proton and few-nucleon systems and studies of two- and three-nucleon interactions using few-nucleon reactions induced by photons and neutrons.  In the coming years, a focus will be on investigating the neutron-neutron interaction in reactions and inside nuclei.  In addition, his work includes applications of nuclear physics to national nuclear security, medical isotope production, and plant biology. Most of his research is carried out at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source and the tandem laboratory at TUNL. 

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., Duke University 1984

Selected Grants

Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Product Yields from Photon-Induced Fission of Special awarded by Department of Energy (Principal Investigator). 2018 to 2021

Measurements of Neutron-induced Fission awarded by Department of Energy (Co Investigator). 2018 to 2021

Sloan Foundation Graduate School Award awarded by Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (Co-Principal Investigator). 2017 to 2021

REU Site: Undergraduate Research in Nuclear Particle Physics at TUNL and Duke awarded by National Science Foundation (Senior Investigator). 2018 to 2021

Cross Section Measurements of Photonuclear Reaction Pathways Towards Promising Medical Isotopes awarded by Department of Energy (Principal Investigator). 2017 to 2020

Ninth International Workshop on Chiral Dynamics, 2018 awarded by Department of Energy (Principal Investigator). 2018 to 2020

DukeMed Activated awarded by National Institutes of Health (Advisor). 2014 to 2019

REU Site: Undergraduate Research in Nuclear Physics at TUNL/Duke University awarded by National Science Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2019

Studies of Nuclear Structure Using Neutrons and Charged Particles awarded by Department of Energy (Co Investigator). 1997 to 2019

Photo-Fission Product Yields of Special Nuclear Materials awarded by Department of Energy (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2018

Pages

Malone, R. C., et al. “Neutron-neutron quasifree scattering in neutron-deuteron breakup at 10 MeV.” Physical Review C, vol. 101, no. 3, Mar. 2020. Scopus, doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.101.034002. Full Text

Li, X., et al. “Compton scattering from He 4 at the TUNL HIγ S facility.” Physical Review C, vol. 101, no. 3, Mar. 2020. Scopus, doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.101.034618. Full Text

Friesen, F. Q. L., and C. R. Howell. “A functional form for liquid scintillator pulse shapes.” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 955, Mar. 2020. Scopus, doi:10.1016/j.nima.2019.163302. Full Text

Gai, M., et al. “Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detectors for nuclear astrophysics studies with gamma beams.” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 954, Feb. 2020. Scopus, doi:10.1016/j.nima.2019.01.006. Full Text

Krishichayan, Arno, et al. “Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams.” Physical Review C, vol. 100, no. 1, July 2019. Scopus, doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.100.014608. Full Text

Yates, S. A., et al. “Measurement of the Se 80 (γ,n) reaction with linearly polarized γ rays.” Physical Review C, vol. 98, no. 5, Nov. 2018. Scopus, doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.98.054621. Full Text

Krishichayan, Jun J., et al. “Monoenergetic photon-induced fission cross-section ratio measurements for U 235, U 238, and Pu 239 from 9.0 to 17.0 MeV.” Physical Review C, vol. 98, no. 1, July 2018. Scopus, doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.98.014608. Full Text

Krishichayan, Bhargab B., et al. “Photofission cross-section ratio measurement of 235U/238U using monoenergetic photons in the energy range of 9.0–16.6 MeV.” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 854, May 2017, pp. 40–44. Scopus, doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.02.043. Full Text

Carlson, J., et al. “White paper on nuclear astrophysics and low-energy nuclear physics, Part 2: Low-energy nuclear physics.” Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, vol. 94, May 2017, pp. 68–124. Scopus, doi:10.1016/j.ppnp.2016.11.002. Full Text

Gooden, M. E., et al. “Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV.” Nuclear Data Sheets, vol. 131, Jan. 2016, pp. 319–56. Scopus, doi:10.1016/j.nds.2015.12.006. Full Text

Pages

Gooden, Matthew, et al. “Energy dependence of fission product yields for 235U, 238U, and 239Pu with monoenergetic neutrons between thermal and 14.8 MeV.” Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, vol. 253, AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2017.

Friesen, F. Q. L., et al. “Design of an Experiment to Measure ann Using 3 H (γ, pn) n at HIγS.” Epj Web of Conferences, vol. 113, 2016. Scopus, doi:10.1051/epjconf/201611308007. Full Text

Han, Z., et al. “Monte-Carlo Simulation of 3H(γ, pn) n and 3He(γ, pp) n Experiments at HI γs.” Epj Web of Conferences, vol. 113, 2016. Scopus, doi:10.1051/epjconf/201611308009. Full Text

Malone, R. C., et al. “Neutron-neutron quasifree scattering in nd breakup at 10 MeV.” Epj Web of Conferences, vol. 113, 2016. Scopus, doi:10.1051/epjconf/201611304010. Full Text

Howell, C. R., et al. “Few-Nucleon Research at TUNL: Probing Two- and Three-Nucleon Interactions with Neutrons.” Epj Web of Conferences, vol. 113, 2016. Scopus, doi:10.1051/epjconf/201611304008. Full Text

Snow, W. M., et al. “Status of Theory and Experiment in Hadronic Parity Violation.” International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series, vol. 40, World Scientific Pub Co Pte Lt, 2016, pp. 1660002–1660002. Crossref, doi:10.1142/s2010194516600028. Full Text

Seo, P. N., et al. “Frozen spin target system for high intensive gamma-ray source at DFELL of TUNL.” Proceedings of Science, vol. 09-13-September-2013, 2014.

Weisel, G. J., et al. “Neutron-deuteron analyzing power data at En=22.5 MeV.” Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, vol. 89, no. 5, 2014. Scopus, doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.89.054001. Full Text

Arnold, C. W., et al. “MEASUREMENT OF FISSION PRODUCT YIELDS FROM FAST-NEUTRON-INDUCED FISSION.” Fission and Properties of Neutron Rich Nuclei, Icfn5, edited by J. H. Hamilton and A. V. Ramayya, WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD, 2013, pp. 443–48.

Kapadia, A., et al. “SU‐GG‐I‐159: In‐Vivo Iron Measurement through Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence.” Medical Physics, vol. 37, no. 6, 2010, p. 3138. Scopus, doi:10.1118/1.3468195. Full Text

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