Calvin R. Howell

Calvin R. Howell

Professor of Physics

Office Location: 
221 Dfell, Durham, NC 27708
Front Office Address: 
Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308
(919) 660-2632


Professor Howell’s research is in the area of experimental nuclear physics with emphasis on the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) description of low-energy nuclear phenomena, including structure properties of nucleons and nuclei and reaction dynamics in few-nucleon systems.   The macroscopic properties of nucleon structure and the residual strong nuclear force between neutrons and protons in nuclei emerge from QCD at distances where the color interactions between quarks and gluons are strong.  However, the details of the mechanisms that generate the strong nuclear force are not well understood.   Effective field theories (EFT) and Lattice QCD calculations provide theoretical frames that connect low-energy nuclear phenomena to QCD.  Professor Howell and collaborators are conducting experiments on few-nucleon systems that test predictions of ab-initio theory calculations for the purpose of providing insight about the QCD descriptions of low-energy nucleon interactions and structure.  His current projects include measurements of the electromagnetic and spin-dependent structure properties of nucleons via Compton scattering on the proton and few-nucleon systems and studies of two- and three-nucleon interactions using few-nucleon reactions induced by photons and neutrons.  In the coming years, a focus will be on investigating the neutron-neutron interaction in reactions and inside nuclei.  In addition, his work includes applications of nuclear physics to national nuclear security, medical isotope production, and plant biology. Most of his research is carried out at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source and the tandem laboratory at TUNL. 

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., Duke University 1984

Weisel, G. J., et al. “Analyzing power measurements for 209Bi(n,n) at 6 and 9 MeV and consistent dispersive optical-model analyses for n+209Bi and n+208Pb from -20 to +80 MeV.Physical Review. C, Nuclear Physics, vol. 54, no. 5, Nov. 1996, pp. 2410–28. Epmc, doi:10.1103/physrevc.54.2410. Full Text

Howell, C. R., et al. “Probing the three-nucleon force using nucleon-deuteron breakup reactions.” Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, vol. 99, no. 1–4, May 1995, pp. 316–19. Scopus, doi:10.1016/0168-583X(94)00680-6. Full Text

Clegg, T. B., et al. “A new atomic beam polarized ion source for the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory: overview, operating experience, and performance.” Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A, vol. 357, no. 2–3, Apr. 1995, pp. 200–11. Scopus, doi:10.1016/0168-9002(94)01078-1. Full Text

Howell, C. R., et al. “Resolution of discrepancy between backward angle cross-section data for neutron-deuteron elastic scattering.” Few Body Systems, vol. 16, no. 3, Sept. 1994, pp. 127–42. Scopus, doi:10.1007/BF01355285. Full Text

Aksoy, A., et al. “Response-function measurement of an NE213 scintillator using the 2H(d, n)3He reaction.” Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A, vol. 337, no. 2–3, Jan. 1994, pp. 486–91. Scopus, doi:10.1016/0168-9002(94)91118-5. Full Text

Howell, C. R., et al. “Novel probe of charge symmetry breaking: Deuteron-induced deuteron breakup.Physical Review. C, Nuclear Physics, vol. 48, no. 6, Dec. 1993, pp. 2855–63. Epmc, doi:10.1103/physrevc.48.2855. Full Text

Chen, Z. M., et al. “Neutron scattering from 12C between 15.6 and 17.3 MeV.” Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, vol. 19, no. 6, Dec. 1993, pp. 877–87. Scopus, doi:10.1088/0954-3899/19/6/008. Full Text

Yang, X., et al. “Dipole and spin-dipole resonances in charge-exchange reactions on 12C.Physical Review. C, Nuclear Physics, vol. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1993, pp. 1158–71. Epmc, doi:10.1103/physrevc.48.1158. Full Text

Park, B. K., et al. “Energy dependence of multipole strength distributions in the 32S(n,p)32P reaction.Physical Review. C, Nuclear Physics, vol. 48, no. 2, Aug. 1993, pp. 711–22. Epmc, doi:10.1103/physrevc.48.711. Full Text

Walter, R. L., et al. “The dispersive optical model for n + 208Pb and n + 209Bi.” Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, vol. 79, no. 1–4, June 1993, pp. 282–85. Scopus, doi:10.1016/0168-583X(93)95344-5. Full Text