Anuj J Kapadia

Anuj J Kapadia

Associate Professor in Radiology

Office Location: 
2424 Erwin Road, Suite 302, Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC 27705
Front Office Address: 
Box 2731 Med Ctr, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710
Phone: 
(919) 684-1442

Overview

My research focuses on developing an innovative imaging modality - Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT), that uses inelastic scattering through fast neutrons to generate tomographic images of the body's element composition. Such information is vital in diagnosing a variety of disorders ranging from iron and copper overload in the liver to several cancers. Specifically, there are two ongoing projects:

1) Experimental Implementation of NSECT

Neutron spectroscopy techniques are showing significant promise in determining element concentrations in the human body. We have developed a tomographic imaging system capable of generating tomographic images of the element concentration within a body through a single non-invasive in-vivo scan. This system has been implemented using a Van-de-Graaf accelerator fast neutron source and high-purity germanium gamma detectors at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. This setup has been used to obtain NSECT scans for several samples such as bovine liver, mouse specimens and human breast tissue. In order to extract maximum information about a target sample with the lowest possible levels of dose, it is essential to maximize the sensitivity of the scanning system. In other words, the signal to noise ratio for the experimental setup must be maximized. This project aims at increasing the sensitivity of the NSECT system by understanding the various sources of noise and implementing techniques to reduce their effect. Noise in the system may originate from several factors such as the radiative background in the scanning room, and neutron scatter off of components of the system other than the target. Some of these effects can be reduced by using Time-of-Flight background reduction, while others can be reduced by acquiring a separate sample-out scan. Post processing background reduction techniques are also being developed for removing detector efficiency dependent noise. At this point we have acquired element information from whole mouse specimens and iron-overloaded liver models made of bovine liver tissue artificially injected with iron. Tomographic images have been generated from a solid iron and copper phantom. Our final goal is to implement a low-dose non-invasive scanning system for diagnosis of iron overload and breast cancer.

2) Monte-Carlo simulations in GEANT4

For each tomographic scan of a sample using NSECT, there are several acquisition parameters that can be varied. These parameters can broadly be classified into three categories: (i) Neutron Beam parameters: neutron flux, energy and beam width, (ii) Detector parameters: detector type, size, efficiency and location; (iii) Scanning Geometry: spatial and angular sampling rates. Due to the enormous number of combinations possible using these parameters, it is not feasible to investigate the effects of each parameter on the reconstructed image using a real neutron beam in the limited beam time available. A feasible alternative to this is to use Monte-Carlo simulations to reproduce the entire experiment in a virtual world. The effect of each individual parameter can then be studied using only computer processing time and resources. We use the high energy physics Monte-Carlo software package GEANT4, developed by CERN, which incorporates numerous tools required for building particle sources and detectors, and tracking particle interactions within them. The simulations built so far include the neutron source, HPGE and BGO gamma detectors, and several target materials such as iron, liver and breast tissue.

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., Duke University 2007

Agasthya, G. A., et al. “Low dose, non-tomographic estimation of lesion position and trace element concentration in NSECT.” Ieee Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Jan. 2011, pp. 3796–99. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NSSMIC.2011.6153719. Full Text

Kapadia, A. J., et al. “Elemental quantification through gamma-stimulated spectroscopy: An NRF simulation in GEANT4.” Ieee Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Jan. 2011, pp. 4281–84. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NSSMIC.2011.6153823. Full Text

Agasthya, G. A., et al. “Computerized detection of low SNR cases in NSECT: An ROC-based sensitivity analysis.” Ieee Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Jan. 2011, pp. 3935–38. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NSSMIC.2011.6153748. Full Text

Agasthya, G. A., et al. “Neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy for depth-resolved quantification through NSECT.” Ieee Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Jan. 2011, pp. 3034–37. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NSSMIC.2011.6152547. Full Text

Kapadia, A. J., et al. “Quantitative elemental imaging with neutrons for breast cancer diagnosis: A GEANT4 study.” Ieee Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Dec. 2010, pp. 3065–68. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NSSMIC.2010.5874363. Full Text

Agasthya, G. A., and A. J. Kapadia. “Locating stored iron in the liver through attenuation measurement in NSECT.” Ieee Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Dec. 2009, pp. 2419–22. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NSSMIC.2009.5402150. Full Text

Kapadia, A. J., et al. “Detection of iron overload through neutron stimulated emission computed tomography: A sensitivity analysis study.” Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging  Proceedings of Spie, vol. 7258, June 2009. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.811737. Full Text

Kapadia, A. J., et al. “Detection of iron overload with the ORNL spallation neutron source: An MCNPX simulation study.” Ieee Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Dec. 2008, pp. 4972–75. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NSSMIC.2008.4774356. Full Text

Kapadia, A. J., et al. “Experimental detection of iron overload in liver through neutron stimulated emission spectroscopy..” Phys Med Biol, vol. 53, no. 10, May 2008, pp. 2633–49. Pubmed, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/53/10/013. Full Text

Kapadia, A. J., et al. “Validation of a GE ANT4 simulation of neutron stimulated emission computed tomography.” Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging  Proceedings of Spie, vol. 6913, May 2008. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.773196. Full Text

Pages

Morris, R. E., et al. “Validation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging for normal and neoplastic breast tissues via surgical pathology.” Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging  Proceedings of Spie, vol. 9783, 2016. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.2216974. Full Text

Lakshmanan, M. N., et al. “Coded aperture coherent scatter imaging for breast cancer detection: A Monte Carlo evaluation.” Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging  Proceedings of Spie, vol. 9783, 2016. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.2216482. Full Text

Price, A., et al. “TH-AB-204-06: Using Associated Particle Imaging and Time-Of-Flight Spectroscopy for Eliminating Tomographic Imaging for NSECT: A Simulation Study.” Medical Physics, vol. 42, no. 6, Wiley, 2015, pp. 3715–3715. Crossref, doi:10.1118/1.4926173. Full Text

Albanese, K., et al. “MO-F-CAMPUS-I-03: Tissue Equivalent Material Phantom to Test and Optimize Coherent Scatter Imaging for Tumor Classification.” Medical Physics, vol. 42, no. 6Part30, Wiley, 2015, pp. 3575–3575. Crossref, doi:10.1118/1.4925454. Full Text

Morris, R., et al. “MO-F-CAMPUS-I-04: Characterization of Fan Beam Coded Aperture Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging Methods for Differentiation of Normal and Neoplastic Breast Structures.” Medical Physics, vol. 42, no. 6Part30, Wiley, 2015, pp. 3575–3575. Crossref, doi:10.1118/1.4925455. Full Text

Greenberg, J. A., et al. “Optimization of a coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging system for medical imaging.” Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging  Proceedings of Spie, vol. 9412, 2015. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.2082110. Full Text

Lakshmanan, M. N., et al. “Experimental implementation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of cancerous and healthy breast tissue samples.” Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging  Proceedings of Spie, vol. 9412, 2015. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.2082318. Full Text

Kapadia, A. J., et al. “Brain imaging using fast neutron spectroscopy.” Proceedings of the 2014 Biomedical Sciences and Engineering Conference  5th Annual Ornl Biomedical Sciences and Engineering Conference: Collaborative Biomedical Innovations  the Multi Scale Brain: Spanning Molecular, Cellular, Systems, Cognitive, Behavioral, and Clinical Neuroscience, Bsec 2014, 2014. Scopus, doi:10.1109/BSEC.2014.6867741. Full Text

Kapadia, A., et al. “SU‐GG‐I‐159: In‐Vivo Iron Measurement through Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence.” Medical Physics, vol. 37, no. 6, 2010. Scopus, doi:10.1118/1.3468195. Full Text

Pages