Adam P. Wax
Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Professor of Physics (Secondary)
Faculty Network Member of the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences
Member of the Duke Cancer Institute
Dr. Wax's research interests include optical spectroscopy for early cancer detection, novel microscopy and
The study of intact, living cells with optical spectroscopy offers the opportunity to observe cellular structure, organization and dynamics in a way that is not possible with traditional methods. We have developed a set of novel spectroscopic techniques for measuring spatial, temporal and refractive structure on sub-hertz and sub-wavelength scales based on using low-coherence interferometry (LCI) to detect scattered light. We have applied these techniques in different types of cell biology experiments. In one experiment, LCI measurements of the angular pattern of backscattered light are used to determine non-invasively the structure of sub-cellular organelles in cell monolayers, and the components of epithelial tissue from freshly excised rat esophagus. This work has potential as a diagnostic method for early cancer detection. In another experiment, LCI phase measurements are used to examine volume changes of epithelial cells in a monolayer in response to environmental osmolarity changes. Although cell volume changes have been measured previously, this work demonstrates for the first time the volume of just a few cells (2 or 3) tracked continuously and in situ.
Yang, C., et al. “2π ambiguity-free optical distance measurement with subnanometer precision with a novel phase-crossing low-coherence interferometer.” Optics Letters, vol. 27, no. 2, Jan. 2002, pp. 77–79. Scopus, doi:10.1364/OL.27.000077. Full Text
Yang, Changhuei, et al. “2π ambiguity-free optical distance measurement with subnanometer precision with a novel phase-crossing low-coherence interferometer.” Opt. Lett. (Usa), vol. 27, no. 2, 2002, pp. 77–79.
Yang, C., et al. “The study of cell dynamics with a novel phase referenced low coherence interferometer with sub-wavelength and sub-hertz sensitivity.” Proceedings of Spie the International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 4619, Jan. 2002, pp. 202–09. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.470484. Full Text
Backman, V., et al. “Imaging and measurement of cell structure and organization with submicron accuracy using light scattering spectroscopy.” Proceedings of Spie the International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 4613, Jan. 2002, pp. 101–10. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.465234. Full Text
Backman, V., et al. “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy.” Ieee Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 7, no. 6, Nov. 2001, pp. 887–93. Scopus, doi:10.1109/2944.983289. Full Text
Yang, C., et al. “Phase dispersion optical tomography applied to study sub-cellular motions.” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics Europe Technical Digest, Oct. 2001, pp. 326–27.
Wax, A., et al. “Path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering: Modeling the transition from single to diffusive scattering.” Applied Optics, vol. 40, no. 24, Aug. 2001, pp. 4222–27. Scopus, doi:10.1364/AO.40.004222. Full Text
Yang, C., et al. “Phase-referenced interferometer with subwavelength and subhertz sensitivity applied to the study of cell membrane dynamics.” Optics Letters, vol. 26, no. 16, Aug. 2001, pp. 1271–73. Scopus, doi:10.1364/OL.26.001271. Full Text
Wax, A., et al. “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy.” Optics Letters, vol. 26, no. 6, Mar. 2001, pp. 322–24. Scopus, doi:10.1364/OL.26.000322. Full Text