Wikipedia is well on its way to becoming the "Universal Textbook", with link chapters that span almost any subject especially in physics, mathematics, philosophy - things people care about.
I would suggest that at you own convenience you take "wikiromps" starting at any of the following links and following article links as it suits you until you have a pretty good understanding of the history and basic concept associated with the following ideas or laws. We'll then work extensively in class and our observation sessions to turn that initial understanding into deep operational knowledge.
This list will expand as we encounter new concepts during the semester, although (as you'll note) you may well get to them quite early on your wikiromps as links will carry you quickly from "intro" level articles to graduate school level articles. Read and become familiar at your own pace, but don't hold back on following links to more difficult or advanced articles.