Interested in learning more about physics? The resources below should be helpful. You should realize, however, that some of the information below may be difficult to understand at the high school or freshmen level. Do not let that discourage you. Simply reviewing the abstracts, introductions and conclusions can give you a sense of the key ideas and implications being discussed.
Books Related to Physics
"Big picture" books related to cosmology
- Just Six Numbers: The Deep Forces that Shape the Universe by Martin Rees. A short but stimulating book that discusses how many details of the universe and the existence of life itself depend on precise values of certain constants of nature. Why are the properties of the universe so sensitive to these constants and why is it that the constants seem to have just the right precise values for complicated structure, including life, to arise?
- The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe, Second Edition by Steven Weinberg (Basic Books, 1993).
Three popular books related to frontiers of particle physics and gravity:
- The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory by Brian Greene. A popular non-technical book that tries to explain string theory, one of the current attempts to reconcile the physics of the small (quantum mechanics) with the physics of the large (Einstein's theory of gravity). Along the way you will learn why there may be as many as ten spatial dimensions and that all known particles possibly arise from vibrations of incredibly tiny quantum strings. There is a NOVA television episode based on this book that you might enjoy watching.
- Warped Passages: Unraveling The Mysteries Of The Universe's Hidden Dimensions by Lisa Randall. Another popular book by a leading physicist about the possibility and consequences of more than three spatial dimensions existing.
- Neutrino Hunters: the Thrilling Chase for a Ghostly Particle to Unlock the Secrets of the Universe by Ray Jayawardhana (Scientific American, 2013).
Some non-technical books related to nonlinear dynamics, pattern formation, and networks (related to the question of how does complex structure arise in the world and how does one describe complex structure):
- Chaos: Making A New Science by James Gleick
- The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature by Philip Ball.
- Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else and What it Means by Albert-Laslo Barabasi.
- The Edge of Physics: A Journey to Earth's Extremes to Unlock the Secrets of the Universe by Anil Anathaswamy. Non-technical book that gives a first-hand look at ten ongoing physics experiments that are addressing the frontiers of physics.
- The Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach by Christof Koch. How does one begin to figure out how brains work and can one explain something as ill-defined as "consciousness"? Theoretical physicist Christof Koch gives a readable, interesting, and mainly non-technical overview of how scientists are making progress in understanding how brains work.
- Beyond Measure: Modern Physics, Philosophy, and the Meaning of Quantum Theory by Jim Baggott. One of the best non-technical discussions about what is quantum mechanics.
- Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman by Richard P. Feynman. Entertaining stories and musings by one of the great theoretical physicists of the 20th century.
- Sustainable Energy — Without the Hot Air by David MacKay. One of the better books on the quest for sustainable energy, a major physics challenge for the next few decades. It is free to download from this site.
Articles Related to Physics
- There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom by Richard Feynman, the 1965 Physics Nobel prize winner. This is a famous and nontechnical article from 1959 about the many opportunities to develop an engineering capability at the molecular level, foreshadowing the modern field of nanoscience.
- Ultimate physical limits to computation, by Seth Lloyd. This paper describes how fundamental laws of nature associated with quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and general relativity (Einstein's theory of gravity) allow one to deduce the ultimate limits that a kilogram of matter can compute. Not only are brains and current computers far from achieving the limits, the ultimate computer requires the extremes of crushing the computer until it is just about to turn into a black hole and simultaneously heating the computer until it becomes a super-hot plasma of about 109 K. This paper is a nice example of how order-of-magnitude estimates can produce interesting insights about a practical issue like computing.
- The Unreasonable Effectiveness Of Mathematics In The Natural Sciences by Eugene Wigner (1963 Physics Nobel prize Sciences winner). Professor Wigner addresses a deep mystery, which is why is it that mathematics, a human invention, turns out to be so effective in understanding the universe.
- Is the moon there when nobody looks? Reality and quantum theory by N. David Mermin. This article is an accessible and not-too-technical introduction to one of the strangest features of quantum mechanics, the idea of entangled particles, and to the implications of entanglement for understanding "reality". Briefly, it is possible to arrange two particles, say two photons arising from the annihilation of a positronium atom, to be entangled which means that these particles have behaviors that are correlated in a way that makes no sense from a classical (non-quantum) point of view: measurements on one particle of an entangled pair must produce results that are correlated with measurements carried out on the other particle of the entangled pair, even if the two particles are separated by a great distance (say a light year) and even if the measurements are simultaneously carried out on the two particles, more quickly than light can travel between the two experiments. Read the Mermin article to get a better understanding.
The following are videos of general interest to physics majors and science students. Enjoy!
- One-Minute physics, amusing cartoon animations of interesting physics.
- Physics for the 21st Century, set of 11 videos about current frontiers of physics. Two of our Physics faculty appear in these videos, Professor Mark Kruse appears in Unit 1 (searching for the Higgs particle at the Fermilab Tevatron) and Professor Ayana Arce appears in Unit 2 (about the Large Hadron Collider).
- How to tell if an egg is boiled or raw. Why is this useful illustration of inertia not taught to everyone in elementary school?
- In Search of Giants with ex-pop musician and physicist Brian Cox.
- Magnetic levitation of a living frog in a solenoid that generates a 16 tesla magnetic field. A nice discussion of the science behind the levitating frog is given here and involves the concept of diamagnetism a weak repulsion that any material object feels when pushed into a magnetic field.
Note: One tesla is about 10,000 times stronger than the Earth's magnetic field at sea level so a 16 T field is strong indeed. In fact, this field strength would quench a superconductor so one has to use a solenoid build out of "ordinary" metal to generate such a strong field. Can you figure out what it would take to float a 65 kg Duke student via diamagnetism?
- Inner Life of a Cell. Although this simulation is perhaps more well known to biologists as an illustration of the extraordinary complexity of a living cell, it is full of interesting examples of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena of interest to physics students. Examples shown in the video include: self-assembly of microtubules, kinesin motors that transport vesicles along microtubule railways, transcription of DNA followed by translation into proteins, diffusion of intramembrane proteins in a liquid lipid bilayer, and so on. Most of what is shown in this movie is poorly understood, there are many interesting open questions to explore.
- Homemade Spacecraft: a video from a simple home-brewed device consisting of a thermally insulated video recorder attached to a weather balloon, with a cellphone included to indicate the GPS location of the device.
- Feynman video lectures on the character of physical law. Richard Feynman was one of the great theoretical physicists of the 20th century and a great expositor of physics. In the 1960s, he gave several popular public lectures about physics at Cornell University that later turned into a book The Character of Physical Law. You may especially enjoy the sixth lecture about the quantum mechanical view of nature.
- Fun To Imagine, some videos of Feynman explaining science to a television audience.
- The current (2010-2011) television series Through the Wormhole, narrated by Morgan Freeman, has numerous physics-related themes that you will likely enjoy: time travel, black holes, and antimatter are several examples.
- What happens when you stick your hand into the high-energy (7 TeV) proton beam of the Large Hadron Collider? Several physicists at the Large Hadron Collider were asked this question, a partial summary of their answers is given in the video. Note that even for experts, it take some careful thinking and calculation to answer a seemingly simple question.
This related website discusses an actual related example that occurred when, in 1978, a graduate student accidently put his head in the path of a proton beam from the U-70 particle accelerator in Russia. This was the world's most powerful accelerator in 1967, with a maximum beam of energy of about one percent the energy of the LHC. Remarkably, the student survived the experience.
- Mad Science videos related to Theodore Gray's book Mad Science: Experiments You Can Do at Home--But Probably Shouldn't. One of my favorites (and something to do at an SPS meeting) is to Trap Lightning in a Block.
- Cloud chamber that reveals the passage of invisible high energy subatomic particles moving through the air. Many science museums have a big cloud chamber: a dark box with what looks like a fine mist falling, with white vapor trails that appear randomly when a rapidly moving charged particle like a muon or proton (cosmic ray) passes through the fog. (The particles could also come from some radioactive source placed in the chamber.) As a charged particle moves through the supersaturated alcohol vapor, it ionizes alcohol molecules which then triggers local condensation of the gas into a small liquid droplet, which then scatters light and is visible as a white spot. The group of spots along the trail is basically a small linear artificial cloud, hence the name "cloud chamber".
Cloud chambers are easy to build and great fun. You are welcome to set up and try the commercially made cloud chamber in the Physics Demo room.
- Acoustic levitation of an object by using strong sound waves. A friendly explanation is given here.
- The Pale Blue Dot, Carl Sagan rather famous video in which he philosophizes about how the great scale of the solar system and universe should help put human social problems in perspective.
- A Cosmic Dawn, jazzed up and inspirational musical video of Carl Sagan and his view of the universe, from the Symphony of Science.
- J. Robert Oppenheimer reminiscing about the detonation of the atomic bomb.